FAIR VALUE MEASUREMENTS
|9 Months Ended|
Jul. 31, 2018
|Fair Value Disclosures [Abstract]|
|Fair Value Disclosures [Text Block]||
3. FAIR VALUE MEASUREMENTS
US GAAP defines fair value and establishes a framework for measuring fair value. We have categorized our financial assets, based on the priority of the inputs to the valuation technique, into a three-level fair value hierarchy as set forth below. If the inputs used to measure the financial instruments fall within different levels of the hierarchy, the categorization is based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement of the instrument.
Financial assets and liabilities recorded in the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheets are categorized based on the inputs to the valuation techniques as follows:
Level 1 - Financial assets and liabilities whose values are based on unadjusted quoted prices for identical assets or liabilities in an active market which we have the ability to access at the measurement date.
Level 2 - Financial assets and liabilities whose values are based on quoted market prices in markets where trading occurs infrequently or whose values are based on quoted prices of instruments with similar attributes in active markets.
Level 3 – Financial assets and liabilities whose values are based on prices or valuation techniques that require inputs that are both unobservable and significant to the overall fair value measurement. These inputs reflect management’s own assumptions about the assumptions a market participant would use in pricing the asset and liabilities.
The following table presents the hierarchy for our financial assets measured at fair value on a recurring basis as of July 31, 2018:
Our non-financial assets that are measured on a non-recurring basis include our patents and property and equipment which are measured using fair value techniques whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate a condition of impairment exists. The estimated fair value of prepaid expenses, accounts payable and accrued expenses approximates their individual carrying amounts due to the short-term nature of these measurements. Cash and cash equivalents are stated at carrying value which approximates fair value.
The entire disclosure for the fair value of financial instruments (as defined), including financial assets and financial liabilities (collectively, as defined), and the measurements of those instruments as well as disclosures related to the fair value of non-financial assets and liabilities. Such disclosures about the financial instruments, assets, and liabilities would include: (1) the fair value of the required items together with their carrying amounts (as appropriate); (2) for items for which it is not practicable to estimate fair value, disclosure would include: (a) information pertinent to estimating fair value (including, carrying amount, effective interest rate, and maturity, and (b) the reasons why it is not practicable to estimate fair value; (3) significant concentrations of credit risk including: (a) information about the activity, region, or economic characteristics identifying a concentration, (b) the maximum amount of loss the entity is exposed to based on the gross fair value of the related item, (c) policy for requiring collateral or other security and information as to accessing such collateral or security, and (d) the nature and brief description of such collateral or security; (4) quantitative information about market risks and how such risks are managed; (5) for items measured on both a recurring and nonrecurring basis information regarding the inputs used to develop the fair value measurement; and (6) for items presented in the financial statement for which fair value measurement is elected: (a) information necessary to understand the reasons for the election, (b) discussion of the effect of fair value changes on earnings, (c) a description of [similar groups] items for which the election is made and the relation thereof to the balance sheet, the aggregate carrying value of items included in the balance sheet that are not eligible for the election; (7) all other required (as defined) and desired information.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef