Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)


6 Months Ended
Apr. 30, 2023
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  



Basis of Presentation


The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America (“US GAAP”) for interim financial information and with the instructions to Form 10-Q and Rule 8-03 of Regulation S-X. Accordingly, certain information and disclosures required by generally accepted accounting principles in annual financial statements have been omitted or condensed. These interim condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and related disclosures included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended October 31, 2022. The accompanying October 31, 2022 condensed consolidated balance sheet data was derived from the audited financial statements but does not include all disclosures required by US GAAP. The condensed consolidated financial statements include all adjustments of a normal recurring nature which, in the opinion of management, are necessary for a fair statement of our financial position as of April 30, 2023, and results of operations and cash flows for the interim periods represented. The results of operations for the three and six months ended April 30, 2023 are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for the year.



Noncontrolling Interest


Noncontrolling interest represents Wistar’s equity ownership in Certainty and is presented as a component of equity. The following table sets forth the changes in noncontrolling interest for the six months ended April 30, 2023 (in thousands):


Balance, October 31, 2022   $ (847 )
Net loss attributable to noncontrolling interest     (51 )
Balance, April 30, 2023   $ (898 )


Revenue Recognition


Our revenue has been derived solely from technology licensing and the sale of patented technologies. Revenue is recognized upon transfer of control of intellectual property rights and satisfaction of other contractual performance obligations to licensees in an amount that reflects the consideration we expect to receive.


Our revenue recognition policy requires us to make certain judgments and estimates in connection with the accounting for revenue. Such areas may include determining the existence of a contract and identifying each party’s rights and obligations to transfer goods and services, identifying the performance obligations in the contract, determining the transaction price and allocating the transaction price to separate performance obligations, estimating the timing of satisfaction of performance obligations, determining whether a promise to grant a license is distinct from other promised goods or services and evaluating whether a license transfers to a customer at a point in time or over time.


Our revenue arrangements provide for the payment, within 30 days of execution of the agreement, of contractually determined, one-time, paid-up license fees in settlement of litigation and in consideration for the grant of certain intellectual property rights for patented technologies owned or controlled by the Company. These arrangements typically include some combination of the following: (i) the grant of a non-exclusive, retroactive and future license to manufacture and/or sell products covered by patented technologies owned or controlled by the Company, (ii) a covenant-not-to-sue, (iii) the release of the licensee from certain claims, and (iv) the dismissal of any pending litigation. In such instances, the intellectual property rights granted have been perpetual in nature, extending until the expiration of the related patents. Pursuant to the terms of these agreements, we have no further obligations with respect to the granted intellectual property rights, including no obligation to maintain or upgrade the technology, or provide future support or services. Licensees obtained control of the intellectual property rights they have acquired upon execution of the agreement. Accordingly, the performance obligations from these agreements were satisfied and 100% of the revenue was recognized upon the execution of the agreements.



Cost of Revenues


Cost of revenues include the costs and expenses incurred in connection with our patent licensing and enforcement activities, including inventor royalties paid to original patent owners, contingent legal fees paid to external counsel, other patent-related legal expenses paid to external counsel and licensing and enforcement related research, consulting and other expenses paid to third-parties. These costs are included under the caption “Operating costs and expenses” in the accompanying condensed consolidated statements of operations.


Research and Development Expenses


Research and development expenses, consisting primarily of employee compensation, payments to third parties for research and development activities and other direct costs associated with developing immuno-therapy drugs against cancer, developing anti-viral drug candidates for COVID-19 (through March 2023), developing our breast cancer vaccine, and developing our ovarian cancer vaccine, are expensed in the consolidated financial statements in the period incurred.


Investment Policy


The Company’s investment policy is to acquire debt securities with fixed maturities and contractual cash flows that the Company has the positive intent and ability to hold to maturity. These securities are recorded at amortized cost, net of any applicable discount which is amortized to interest income, and are accounted for as held-to-maturity securities.